From poet Aogán Ó Rathaille’s lifetime (d. c. 1729), which coincided with the final defeat of the Irish and the exile and expropriation of their patrons, the bardic tradition in Gaelic poetry was at an end. Historian Charles Smith’s Antient and Present State of the County of Kerry appeared in 1756, by which time the language itself was in retreat and the county on the way to becoming thoroughly anglicised. Smith recorded thatched chapels, tolerated because the Protestant mission had manifestly failed and because the Catholic clergy were clearly deferential to authority and favourable to law and order. However, the country, even in the remote regions, was being steadily anglicised. Among the principal agencies for this was the legal system and the courts of the twice yearly assizes held in Tralee. Not only that, but in Georgian times Kerry produced a superabundance of native attorneys and barristers who rose to the highest or second-highest rung of the judicial ladder; and their great ambition was to emulate the great orators of Parliament and the Dublin and provincial courts. Judge Henry Rose (d. 1743), from near near Askeaton, sat in Parliament for Ardfert for two decades in the first third of the century, and Robert Day of Tralee a generation or two later. Day, born the decade Rose died, the same decade poet Owen Rua O Suilleabhain (b. 1748) was born, kept detailed diaries all his life, and his first biographer stated that he spoke the native language from when he was fostered as a child with a poor family; yet there is no reference to Gaelic in any of Day’s writings. Daniel O’Connell (b. 1775) chose the church over the native language, and he was encouraged to do so when he saw the great strides made by the church during his youth when the Georgian state contrived to extend the hand of toleration and protection to its reestablishment in Ireland.