In 1688 William of Orange overthrew King James II to assume the throne of England. But the Irish stood by the Catholic James and in January 1689 they drove out the English settlement of Sir William Petty in Kenmare.
Petty, who had functioned as Cromwell’s map maker, did not live to see the catastrophe that befell his Kenmare settlement. He died in 1687.
Petty’s widow and son were raised to the peerage by James II on the same day in 1688 as Baroness and Baron Shelburne, a name taken from one of the baronies in Wexford which was part of the Petty estate. Petty had been acutely conscious of the minority position of the new English in Ireland generally, but also of the scientific improvements which he, as a member of the Royal Society, could bring to remote regions like Kenmare. Fish exports and harvesting of the woods for wood products were among his achievements.
Though the settlement was overthrown, the Petty/Shelburne presence would remain. They became the Marquesses of Lansdowne.